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2019 Key Tax Numbers


2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

2019 Education Planning  2019 Protection Planning  2019 Estate Planning  2019 Government Benefits  

2019 Retirement Planning  2019 Investment Planning  2020 Key Tax Numbers Archives



2019 Individual Income Tax Planning

Adoption credit

Adoption credit20182019
Maximum credit$13,810$14,080
Phaseout threshold amount$207,140$211,160
Completed phaseout amount after$247,140$251,160


Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)

Maximum AMT exemption amount20182019
Married filing jointly or surviving spouse$109,400$111,700
Single or head of household$70,300$71,700
Married filing separately$54,700$55,850
AMT income exemption phaseout threshold20182019
Married filing jointly or surviving spouse$1,000,000$1,020,600
Single or head of household$500,000$510,300
Married filing separately$500,000$510,300
AMT tax rate (26% rate applies to AMTI at or below amount; 28% applies to AMTI above amount)20182019
All taxpayers except married filing separately$191,100$194,800
Married filing separately$95,550$97,400


Charitable deductions

Use of auto20182019
Deductible standard mileage rate$0.14$0.14
Charitable fundraising "insubstantial benefit" limitation20182019
Low-cost article (re: unrelated business income)$10.80$11.10
Gifts to donor in return for contribution20182019
Token gift maximum cost1$10.80$11.10
Minimum contribution amount1$54$55.50
2% threshold amount2$108$111

1 Contribution is fully deductible if minimum contribution amount is met and cost of token gift does not exceed maximum

2 Charitable contribution is fully deductible if the benefit received by the donor doesn't exceed the lesser of the threshold amount or 2% of the amount of the contribution

Child tax credit

Amount of credit20182019
Maximum credit per qualifying child$2,000$2,000
Nonrefundable credit for dependents who are not qualifying children$500$500
Phaseout -- credit reduced by $50 for each $1,000 or fraction thereof of MAGI over:20182019
Single$200,000$200,000
Married Filing Jointly$400,000$400,000
Married Filing Separately$200,000$200,000
Refundability -- up to specified percentage of earned income in excess of specified amount20182019
Percentage15%15%
Amount$2,500$2,500
Maximum refundable amount of credit$1,400$1,400


Classroom expenses of elementary and secondary school teachers

Classroom expense deduction20182019
Maximum above-the-line deduction$250$250


Earned income tax credit (EITC)

Investment income limit20182019
Excessive investment income limit ("disqualified income limit")$3,500$3,600
Maximum amount of EITC per number of children20182019
0 children$519$529
1 child$3,461$3,526
2 children$5,716$5,828
3 or more children$6,431$6,557
Maximum amount of earned income on which EITC is based (earned income over this amount but under the threshold phaseout amount will not change the amount of the credit received)20182019
0 children$6,780$6,920
1 child$10,180$10,370
2 or more children$14,290$14,570
Threshold phaseout amount for joint filers per number of children20182019
0 children$14,170$14,450
1 child$24,350$24,820
2 children$24,350$24,820
3 or more children$24,350$24,820
Threshold phaseout amount for other filers per number of children20182019
0 children$8,490$8,650
1 child$18,660$19,030
2 children$18,660$19,030
3 or more children$18,660$19,030
Completed phaseout amount for joint filers per number of children20182019
0 children$20,950$21,370
1 child$46,010$46,884
2 children$51,492$52,493
3 or more children$54,884$55,952
Completed phaseout amount for other filers per number of children20182019
0 children$15,270$15,570
1 child$40,320$41,094
2 children$45,802$46,703
3 or more children$49,194$50,162


Expatriation

Covered expatriate20182019
An individual with "average annual net income tax" of more than this amount for the five taxable years ending before his or her loss of citizenship is a covered expatriate for the purposes of IRC §877A(g)(1)$165,000$168,000
IRC §877A(3) exclusion amount$711,000$725,000


Foreign earned income

Amount excluded from income20182019
Exclusion amount$103,900$105,900


Itemized deductions

Phaseout threshold20182019
Married filing jointlyN/AN/A
Head of householdN/AN/A
UnmarriedN/AN/A
Married filing separatelyN/AN/A


Kiddie tax

Unearned income limit20182019
Amount exempt from tax$1,050$1,100
Additional amount taxed at child's rate$1,050$1,100
Unearned income over this amount taxed at trust and estate income tax rates$2,100$2,200
Parent's election20182019
Election to include child's income on parent's return -- child's gross income requirement$1,050 - $10,500$1,100 - $11,000
AMT20182019
AMT exemption for child subject to kiddie taxLesser of $7,600 + child's earned income or $70,300Lesser of $7,750 + child's earned income or $71,700


Medicare tax (additional payroll tax and unearned income contribution tax)

Payroll tax20182019
Additional Medicare payroll tax (and self-employment tax) percentage rate0.90%0.90%
Applies to wages/self-employment income exceeding20182019
Individuals$200,000$200,000
Married filing jointly$250,000$250,000
Married filing separately$125,000$125,000
Tax on unearned income20182019
Unearned income Medicare contribution tax rate3.80%3.80%
Applies to lesser of (a) net investment income or (b) modified adjusted gross income exceeding20182019
Individuals$200,000$200,000
Married filing jointly$250,000$250,000
Married filing separately$125,000$125,000


Nanny tax

Compensation threshold20182019
Domestic employee coverage threshold$2,100$2,100


Personal exemption amount

Amount20182019
Personal exemption amountN/AN/A
Married filing jointly20182019
Phaseout threshold amountN/AN/A
Completed phaseout amount afterN/AN/A
Head of household20182019
Phaseout threshold amountN/AN/A
Completed phaseout amount afterN/AN/A
Unmarried20182019
Phaseout threshold amountN/AN/A
Completed phaseout amount afterN/AN/A
Married filing separately20182019
Phaseout threshold amountN/AN/A
Completed phaseout amount afterN/AN/A


"Saver's Credit"

Elective Deferrals and IRA or ABLE Contributions by Certain Individuals20182019
Maximum credit amount$1,000$1,000
Applicable percentage of 50% applies to AGI20182019
Joint Return$0 - $38,000$0 - $38,500
Head of Household$0 - $28,500$0 - $28,875
Other$0 - $19,000$0 - $19,250
Applicable percentage of 20% applies to AGI20182019
Joint Return$38,001 - $41,000$38,501 - $41,500
Head of Household$28,501 - $30,750$28,876 - $31,125
Other$19,001 - $20,500$19,251 - $20,750
Applicable percentage of 10% applies to AGI20182019
Joint Return$41,001 - $63,000$41,501 - $64,000
Head of Household$30,751 - $47,250$31,126 - $48,000
Other$20,501 - $31,500$20,751 - $32,000
Applicable percentage of 0% applies to AGI20182019
Joint ReturnOver $63,000Over $64,000
Head of HouseholdOver $47,250Over $48,000
OtherOver $31,500Over $32,000


Standard deductions

Amounts20182019
Married filing jointly or surviving spouse$24,000$24,400
Head of household$18,000$18,350
Unmarried$12,000$12,200
Married filing separately$12,000$12,200
Dependent--Standard deduction cannot exceed the greater of:$1,050 or $350 + earned income$1,100 or $350 + earned income
Additional deduction for aged or blind (single or head of household)$1,600$1,650
Additional deduction for aged or blind (all other filing statuses)$1,300$1,300


Standard mileage rates

Applicable rates20182019
Use of auto for business purposes (cents per mile)$0.545$0.58
Use of auto for medical purposes (cents per mile)$0.18$0.20
Use of auto for moving purposes (cents per mile)$0.18$0.20


2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

2019 Education Planning  2019 Protection Planning  2019 Estate Planning  2019 Government Benefits  

2019 Retirement Planning  2019 Investment Planning  2020 Key Tax Numbers Archives


2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules

(Individuals, Trusts, and Estates)

Single taxpayers

If taxable income is:Your tax is:
Not over $9,70010% of taxable income
Over $9,700 to $39,475$970 + 12% of the excess over $9,700
Over $39,475 to $84,200$4,543 + 22% of the excess over $39,475
Over $84,200 to $160,725$14,382.50 + 24% of the excess over $84,200
Over $160,725 to $204,100$32,748.50 + 32% of the excess over $160,725
Over $204,100 to $510,300$46,628.50 + 35% of the excess over $204,100
Over $510,300$153,798.50 + 37% of the excess over $510,300


Married filing jointly and surviving spouses

If taxable income is:Your tax is:
Not over $19,40010% of taxable income
Over $19,400 to $78,950$1,940 + 12% of the excess over $19,400
Over $78,950 to $168,400$9,086 + 22% of the excess over $78,950
Over $168,400 to $321,450$28,765 + 24% of the excess over $168,400
Over $321,450 to $408,200$65,497 + 32% of the excess over $321,450
Over $408,200 to $612,350$93,257 + 35% of the excess over $408,200
Over $612,350$164,709.50 + 37% of the excess over $612,350


Married individuals filing separately

If taxable income is:Your tax is:
Not over $9,70010% of taxable income
Over $9,700 to $39,475$970 + 12% of the excess over $9,700
Over $39,475 to $84,200$4,543 + 22% of the excess over $39,475
Over $84,200 to $160,725$14,382.50 + 24% of the excess over $84,200
Over $160,725 to $204,100$32,748.50 + 32% of the excess over $160,725
Over $204,100 to $306,175$46,628.50 + 35% of the excess over $204,100
Over $306,175$82,354.75 + 37% of the excess over $306,175


Heads of household

If taxable income is:Your tax is:
Not over $13,85010% of taxable income
Over $13,850 to $52,850$1,385 + 12% of the excess over $13,850
Over $52,850 to $84,200$6,065 + 22% of the excess over $52,850
Over $84,200 to $160,700$12,962 + 24% of the excess over $84,200
Over $160,700 to $204,100$31,322 + 32% of the excess over $160,700
Over $204,100 to $510,300$45,210 + 35% of the excess over $204,100
Over $510,300$152,380 + 37% of the excess over $510,300


Trusts and estates

If taxable income is:Your tax is:
Not over $2,60010% of taxable income
Over $2,600 to $9,300$260 + 24% of the excess over $2,600
Over $9,300 to $12,750$1,868 + 35% of the excess over $9,300
Over $12,750$3,075.50 + 37% of the excess over $12,750


2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

2019 Education Planning  2019 Protection Planning  2019 Estate Planning  2019 Government Benefits  

2019 Retirement Planning  2019 Investment Planning  2020 Key Tax Numbers Archives


2019 Business Planning Key Numbers

Adoption Assistance Programs

Adoption assistance20182019
Maximum amount that can be excluded from employee's gross income$13,810$14,080
Phaseout threshold amount$207,140$211,160
Completed phaseout amount after$247,140$251,160


Earnings subject to FICA taxes (taxable wage base)

FICA tax20182019
Maximum annual earnings subject to Social Security taxes$128,400$132,900
Social Security and Medicare combined tax rate15.30%115.30%1
OASDI portion (Social Security)12.40%12.40%
Hospital Insurance portion (Medicare)2.90%12.90%1

1 An additional Medicare (HI) employee contribution rate of 0.9% (for a total employee contribution of 2.35%, and a total combined Medicare contribution rate of 3.8%) is assessed on wages exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing joint returns, $125,000 for married individuals filing separate returns). For married individuals filing joint returns, the additional 0.9% tax applies to the couples combined wages (to the extent the combined wages exceed $250,000).

Health insurance deduction for self-employed

Health insurance premiums20182019
Deduction for health insurance premiums paid by self-employed persons100%100%


Qualified transportation fringe benefits

Qualified transportation fringe benefits20182019
Commuter vehicles and transit pass monthly exclusion amount$260$265
Qualified parking monthly exclusion amount$260$265
Qualified bicycle commuting reimbursement fringe benefit (monthly amount)N/AN/A


Section 179 expensing

Section 179 expensing20182019
Maximum amount that may be deducted under IRC Section 179$1,000,000$1,020,000
Deduction reduced by the amount by which the cost of §179 property placed in service during the year exceeds this amount$2,500,000$2,550,000


Small business tax credit for providing health-care coverage

Amount of credit20182019
Maximum credit percentage50%50%
Partial credit20182019
Number of full-time equivalent employees (FTEs) fewer than:2525
Maximum average annual wages less than:$53,200$54,200
Full credit20182019
Number of full-time equivalent employees (FTEs) no more than:1010
Maximum average annual wages less than or equal to:$26,600$27,100


Special additional first-year depreciation allowance

Bonus depreciation20182019
"Bonus" depreciation for qualified property acquired and placed in service during specified time periods100%100%


Standard mileage rate (per mile)

Business use of auto20182019
Use of auto for business purposes$0.545$0.58


Tax on accumulated earnings and personal holding company income

Accumulated earnings and personal holding company income20182019
Maximum tax on these items20%20%


2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

2019 Education Planning  2019 Protection Planning  2019 Estate Planning  2019 Government Benefits  

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2019 Education Planning Key Numbers

Coverdell education savings accounts

Coverdell ESAs20182019
Annual contribution limit$2,000$2,000
MAGI phaseout range for Coverdell education savings accounts20182019
Single--phaseout threshold amount$95,000$95,000
Single--completed phaseout amount after$110,000$110,000
Married filing jointly--phaseout threshold amount$190,000$190,000
Married filing jointly--completed phaseout threshold amount$220,000$220,000


Deduction for qualified higher education expenses

Higher education expenses20182019
Maximum deductionN/AN/A
MAGI maximum for full $4,000 deduction20182019
SingleN/AN/A
Married filing jointlyN/AN/A
Reduced deduction20182019
Reduced deduction availableN/AN/A
MAGI range for $2,000 deduction20182019
Single--MAGI greater than this amount:N/AN/A
Single--MAGI does not exceed this amount:N/AN/A
Married filing jointly--MAGI greater than this amount:N/AN/A
Married filing jointly--MAGI does not exceed this amount:N/AN/A


Education loans--interest deduction

Education loan interest deduction20182019
Maximum deduction for interest paid on qualified education loans$2,500$2,500
MAGI phaseout range20182019
Single--phaseout threshold amount$65,000$70,000
Single--completed phaseout amount after$80,000$85,000
Married filing jointly--phaseout threshold amount$135,000$140,000
Married filing jointly--completed phaseout amount after$165,000$170,000


Gift tax exclusion

Gift tax20182019
Annual gift tax exclusion--single individual$15,000$15,000
Annual gift tax exclusion--joint gift$30,000$30,000
Lump-sum gift to 529 plan--single individual$75,000$75,000
Lump-sum gift to 529 plan--joint gift$150,000$150,000


Kiddie tax

Kiddie tax20182019
Generally, children pay federal income tax at the tax rates that apply to estates and trusts on any investment income over$2,100$2,200


American Opportunity and Lifetime Learning Credits

Education credits20182019
Maximum Lifetime Learning credit$2,000$2,000
Maximum American Opportunity credit$2,500$2,500
MAGI phaseout range for Lifetime Learning credit20182019
Single--phaseout threshold amount$57,000$58,000
Single--completed phaseout amount after$67,000$68,000
Married filing jointly--phaseout threshold amount$114,000$116,000
Married filing jointly--completed phaseout amount after$134,000$136,000
MAGI phaseout range for American Opportunity credit20182019
Single--phaseout threshold amount$80,000$80,000
Single--completed phaseout amount after$90,000$90,000
Married filing jointly--phaseout threshold amount$160,000$160,000
Married filing jointly--completed phaseout amount after$180,000$180,000


U.S. savings bonds--interest exclusion for higher education expenses

Joint returns20182019
Phaseout threshold for joint returns$119,300$121,600
Completed phaseout amount after149,300$151,600
Other returns20182019
Phaseout threshold for other returns$79,550$81,100
Completed phaseout amount after$94,550$96,100


2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

2019 Education Planning  2019 Protection Planning  2019 Estate Planning  2019 Government Benefits  

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2019 Protection Planning Key Numbers

Eligible long-term care premium deduction limits:

LTC premium deduction limits20182019
Age 40 or under$420$420
Age 41-50$780$790
Age 51-60$1,560$1,580
Age 61-70$4,160$4,220
Over age 70$5,200$5,270


Per diem limit:

LTC periodic payments20182019
Periodic payments for qualified long-term care insurance/certain life insurance$360$370


Archer Medical Savings Accounts

High deductible health plan--self-only coverage20182019
Annual deductible--minimum$2,300$2,350
Annual deductible--maximum$3,450$3,500
Annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) can't exceed$4,550$4,650
High deductible health plan--family coverage20182019
Annual deductible--minimum$4,550$4,650
Annual deductible--maximum$6,850$7,000
Annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) can't exceed$8,400$8,550


Flexible spending account (FSA) for health care

Health care FSAs20182019
Maximum salary reduction contribution$2,650$2,700


Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)

Annual contribution limit20182019
Self-only coverage$3,450$3,500
Family coverage$6,900$7,000
High deductible health plan--self-only coverage20182019
Annual deductible--minimum$1,350$1,350
Annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) can't exceed$6,650$6,750
High deductible health plan--family coverage20182019
Annual deductible--minimum$2,700$2,700
Annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) can't exceed$13,300$13,500
Catch-up contributions20192020
Annual catch-up contribution limit for individuals age 55 or older$1,000$1,000


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2019 Estate Planning Key Numbers

Key indexed figures20182019
Annual gift exclusion:$15,000$15,000
Gift and estate tax applicable exclusion amount:$11,180,000 + DSUEA1$11,400,000 + DSUEA1
Noncitizen spouse annual gift exclusion:$152,000$155,000
Generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax exemption:$11,180,0002$11,400,0002
Special use valuation limit (qualified real property in decedent's gross estate):$1,140,000$1,160,000

1 Basic exclusion amount plus deceased spousal unused exclusion amount (exclusion is portable for 2011 and later years)

2 The GST tax exemption is not portable

2018 and 2019 gift and estate tax rate schedule

Taxable EstateTentative Tax EqualsPlusOf Amount Over
0 - $10,000$018%$0
$10,000 - $20,000$1,80020%$10,000
$20,000 - $40,000$3,80022%$20,000
$40,000 - $60,000$8,20024%$40,000
$60,000 - $80,000$13,00026%$60,000
$80,000 - $100,000$18,20028%$80,000
$100,000 - $150,000$23,80030%$100,000
$150,000 - $250,000$38,80032%$150,000
$250,000 - $500,000$70,80034%$250,000
$500,000 - $750,000$155,80037%$500,000
$750,000 - $1,000,000$248,30039%$750,000
$1,000,000 +$345,80040%$1,000,000




Credit shelter amount $11,180,000 in 2018 and $11,400,000 in 2019Unified credit amount $4,417,800 in 2018 and $4,505,800 in 2019


2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

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2019 Government Benefits Key Numbers

Social Security

Social Security Cost-of-living adjustment (COLA)20182019
For Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) beneficiaries2.00%2.80%
Tax rate--employee20182019
FICA tax -- Employee7.65%7.65%
Social Security (OASDI) portion of tax6.20%6.20%
Medicare (HI) portion of tax1.45%11.45%1
Tax rate--self-employed20182019
Self-Employed15.30%15.30%
Social Security (OASDI) portion of tax12.40%12.40%
Medicare (HI) portion of tax2.90%12.90%1

1 An additional 0.9% Medicare/hospital insurance tax (for a total employee contribution of 2.35%) is assessed on wages exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing joint returns, $125,000 for married individuals filing separate returns). An additional 0.9% Medicare/hospital insurance tax (for a total Medicare portion of 3.8%) is assessed on self-employment income exceeding $200,000 ($250,000 for married couples filing joint returns, $125,000 for married individuals filing separate returns).

Maximum taxable earnings20182019
Social Security (OASDI only)$128,400$132,900
Medicare (HI only)No limitNo limit
Quarter of coverage20182019
Earnings required$1,320$1,360
Retirement earnings test--exempt amounts--Under full retirement age--Benefits reduced by $1 for each $2 earned above:20182019
Yearly figure$17,040$17,640
Monthly figure$1,420$1,470
Retirement earnings test--exempt amounts--Year individual reaches full retirement age--Benefits reduced by $1 for each $3 earned above (applies only to earnings for months prior to attaining full retirement age):20182019
Yearly figure$45,360$46,920
Monthly figure$3,780$3,910
Retirement earnings test--exempt amounts--Beginning the month individual attains full retirement age20182019

No limit on earningsNo limit on earnings
Social Security disability thresholds20182019
Substantial gainful activity (SGA) for the sighted (monthly figure)$1,180$1,220
Substantial gainful activity for the blind (monthly figure)$1,970$2,040
Trial work period (TWP) (monthly figure)$850$880
SSI federal payment standard20182019
Individual (monthly figure)$750$771
Couple (monthly figure)$1,125$1,157
SSI resource limits20182019
Individual$2,000$2,000
Couple$3,000$3,000
SSI student exclusion limits20182019
Monthly limit$1,820$1,870
Annual limit$7,350$7,550
Maximum Social Security benefit20182019
Worker retiring at full retirement age (monthly figure)$2,788$2,861
Formula for Monthly Primary Insurance Amount (PIA)20182019
(90% of first X of AIME + 32% of the AIME over X and through Y + 15% of AIME over Y)X=$895 Y=$5,397X=$926 Y=$5,583


Medicare

Medicare monthly premium amounts--Part A (hospital insurance) premium20182019
Individuals with 40 or more quarters of Medicare-covered employment$0$0
Individuals with less than 40 quarters of Medicare-covered employment who are not otherwise eligible for premium-free hospital insuranceUp to $422Up to $437
Medicare monthly premium amounts--Part B (medical insurance) monthly premium--for beneficiaries who file an individual income tax return with income that is:20182019
Less than or equal to $85,000$1342$135.502
$85,001 - $107,000$187.50$189.60
$107,001 - $133,500$267.90$270.90
$133,501 - $160,000$348.30$352.20
$160,001 - $499,999$428.60$433.40
$500,000 and above$428.60$460.50
Medicare monthly premium amounts--Part B (medical insurance) monthly premium--for beneficiaries who file a joint income tax return with income that is:20182019
Less than or equal to $170,000$1342$135.502
$170,001 - $214,000$187.50$189.60
$214,001 - $267,000$267.90$270.90
$267,001 - $320,000$348.30$352.20
$320,001 - $749,999$428.60$433.40
$750,000 and above$428.60$460.50
Medicare monthly premium amounts--Part B (medical insurance) monthly premium--for beneficiaries who are married, but file a separate tax return from their spouse and lived with spouse at some time during the taxable year with income that is:20182019
Less than or equal to $85,000$1342$135.502
$85,001 - $414,999$428.60$433.40
$415,000 and above$428.60$460.50

2 This is the standard Part B premium amount. However, some people who get Social Security benefits will pay less than this amount.

Original Medicare plan deductible and coinsurance amounts--Part A (hospital insurance)20182019
Deductible per benefit period$1,340$1,364
Coinsurance per day for 61st to 90th day of each benefit period$335$341
Coinsurance per day for 91st to 150th day for each lifetime reserve day (total of 60 lifetime reserve days--nonrenewable)$670$682
Original Medicare plan deductible and coinsurance amounts20182019
Skilled nursing facility coinsurance per day for 21st to 100th day of each benefit period$168$170.50
Original Medicare plan deductible and coinsurance amounts--Part B (medical insurance) annual deductible20182019
Individual pays 20 percent of the Medicare-approved amount for services after deductible is met$183$185


Medicaid

Income threshold20182019
Monthly income threshold for income-cap states ("300 percent cap limit")$2,250$2,313
Monthly maintenance needs allowance for at-home spouse20182019
Minimum 3$2,030.00$2,057.50
Maximum$3,090.00$3,160.50
Spousal resource allowance20182019
Minimum$24,720$25,284
Maximum$123,600$126,420

3 Amounts listed actually effective as of July of prior year; different amounts apply to Alaska and Hawaii.

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2019 Retirement Planning Key Numbers

Employee/individual contribution limits

Elective deferral limits20182019
401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, 457(b) plans, and SAR-SEPs 1 (Includes Roth 401(k) and Roth 403(b) contributions)Lesser of $18,500 or 100% of participant's compensationLesser of $19,000 or 100% of participant's compensation
SIMPLE 401(k) plans and SIMPLE IRA plans1Lesser of $12,500 or 100% of participant's compensationLesser of $13,000 or 100% of participant's compensation

1 Must aggregate employee contributions to all 401(k), 403(b), SAR-SEP, and SIMPLE plans of all employers. 457(b) plan contributions are not aggregated. For SAR-SEPs, the percentage limit is 25% of compensation reduced by elective deferrals (effectively, a 20% maximum contribution).

IRA contribution limits20182019
Traditional IRAsLesser of $5,500 or 100% of earned incomeLesser of $6,000 or 100% of earned income
Roth IRAsLesser of $5,500 or 100% of earned incomeLesser of $6,000 or 100% of earned income
Additional "catch-up" limits (individuals age 50 or older)20182019
401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, 457(b) plans, and SAR-SEPs2$6,000$6,000
SIMPLE 401(k) plans and SIMPLE IRA plans$3,000$3,000
IRAs (traditional and Roth)$1,000$1,000

2 Special catch-up limits may also apply to 403(b) and 457(b) plan participants.

Employer contribution/benefit 3 limits

Defined benefit plan limits20182019
Annual contribution limit per participantNo predetermined limit. Contributions based on amount needed to fund promised benefitsNo predetermined limit. Contributions based on amount needed to fund promised benefits
Annual benefit limit per participantLesser of $220,000 or 100% of average compensation for highest three consecutive yearsLesser of $225,000 or 100% of average compensation for highest three consecutive years
Defined contribution plan limits (qualified plans, 403(b) plans, SEP, and SIMPLE plans)20182019
Annual addition limit per participant (employer contributions; employee pretax, after-tax, and Roth contributions; and forfeitures) (does not apply to SIMPLE IRA plans)Lesser of $55,000 or 100% (25% for SEP) of participant's compensationLesser of $56,000 or 100% (25% for SEP) of participant's compensation
Maximum tax-deductible employer contribution (not applicable to 403(b) plans)25% of total compensation of employees covered under the plan (20% if self employed) plus any employee pretax and Roth contributions; 100% for SIMPLE plans25% of total compensation of employees covered under the plan (20% if self employed) plus any employee pretax and Roth contributions; 100% for SIMPLE plans

3 For self-employed individuals, compensation generally means earned income. This means that, for qualified plans, deductible contributions for a self-employed individual are limited to 20% of net earnings from self-employment (net profits minus self-employment tax deduction), and special rules apply in calculating the annual additions limit.

Compensation limits/thresholds

Retirement plan compensation limits20182019
Maximum compensation per participant that can be used to calculate tax-deductible employer contribution (qualified plans and SEPs)$275,000$280,000
Compensation threshold used to determine a highly-compensated employee$120,000 (when 2018 is the look-back year)$125,000 (when 2019 is the look-back year)
Compensation threshold used to determine a key employee in a top-heavy plan$1 for more-than-5% owners $175,000 for officers $150,000 for more-than-1% owners$1 for more-than-5% owners $180,000 for officers $150,000 for more-than-1% owners
Compensation threshold used to determine a qualifying employee under a SIMPLE plan$5,000$5,000
Compensation threshold used to determine a qualifying employee under a SEP plan$600$600
Traditional deductible IRA income limits--Income phase-out range for determining deductibility of traditional IRA contributions for taxpayers covered by an employer-sponsored plan and filing as:20182019
Single$63,000 - $73,000$64,000 - $74,000
Married filing jointly$101,000 - $121,000$103,000 - $123,000
Married filing separately$0 - $10,000$0 - $10,000
Traditional deductible IRA income limits--Income phase-out range for determining deductibility of traditional IRA contributions for taxpayers not covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan but filing a:20182019
Joint return with a spouse who is covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan$189,000 - $199,000$193,000 - $203,000
Roth IRA compensation limits--Income phase-out range for determining ability to fund Roth IRA for taxpayers filing as:20182019
Single$120,000 - $135,000$122,000 - $137,000
Married filing jointly$189,000 - $199,000$193,000 - $203,000
Married filing separately$0 - $10,000$0 - $10,000


2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

2019 Education Planning  2019 Protection Planning  2019 Estate Planning  2019 Government Benefits  

2019 Retirement Planning  2019 Investment Planning  2020 Key Tax Numbers Archives


2019 Investment Planning Key Numbers

Maximum tax on long-term capital gains and qualified dividends

0% rate applies (taxable income thresholds)20182019
SingleUp to $38,600Up to $39,375
Married filing jointlyUp to $77,200Up to $78,750
Married filing separatelyUp to $38,600Up to $39,375
Head of householdUp to $51,700Up to $52,750
15% rate applies (taxable income thresholds)20182019
Single$38,601 to $425,800$39,376 to $434,550
Married filing jointly$77,201 to $479,000$78,751 to $488,850
Married filing separately$38,601 to $239,500$39,376 to $244,425
Head of household$51,701 to $452,400$52,751 to $461,700
20% rate applies (taxable income thresholds)20182019
SingleOver $425,800Over $434,550
Married filing jointlyOver $479,000Over $488,850
Married filing separatelyOver $239,500Over $244,425
Head of householdOver $452,400Over $461,700


Unearned income Medicare contribution tax ("net investment income tax")

Amount of tax20182019
Tax percentage3.80%3.80%
Applies to lesser of (a) net investment income or (b) modified adjusted gross income exceeding:20182019
Individuals$200,000$200,000
Married filing jointly$250,000$250,000
Married filing separately$125,000$125,000



2019 Individual Income Tax Planning  2019 Federal Income Tax Rate Schedules  2019 Business Planning  

2019 Education Planning  2019 Protection Planning  2019 Estate Planning  2019 Government Benefits  

2019 Retirement Planning  2019 Investment Planning  2020 Key Tax Numbers Archives

This information was prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. and has been made available for Voya Financial Advisors’ representatives for distribution to the public for educational information only. Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. is not affiliated with nor controlled by Voya Financial Advisors. The opinions/views expressed within are that of Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. and do not necessarily reflect those of Voya Financial Advisors or its representatives. In addition, they are not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any individual. Neither Voya Financial Advisors nor its representatives provide tax or legal advice. You should consult with your financial professional, attorney, accountant or tax advisor regarding your individual situation prior to making any investment decisions.

Prepared by Broadridge Investor Communication Solutions, Inc. Copyright 2019.